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1. Demonstrate an ability to recognise skin signs of common or important systemic diseases including: granuloma annulare, dermatitis herpetiformis, necrobiosis lipodica, acanthosis nigricans, splinter haemorrhage, dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, erythema nodosum, erythema multiforme, pruritisEdit

Granuloma annulareEdit

Granuloma Annulare-107

Photo from missinglink.ucsf.edu










A ring of waxy, erythematous papules. 

Associated diseases: diabetes, HIV infection.

Dermatitis herpetiformisEdit

Dermatitis herpetiformis

photo from dermatlas.med.jmhi.edu









An itchy, blistering, persistent skin eruption.

Disease associations: Coeliac's 

Necrobiosis lipodica

Nicrobiosis

from dermatlas.med.jmhi.edu









Patches of redness on the shins. If larger, they will have a well-defined border, and a shiny yellowy centre, usually with visible blood vessels. 

Disease associatons: Insulin dependent and Non-Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

Acanthosis NigricansEdit

Acanthosis nigricans

from rfes.upta.edu










Hyperpigmentation and thick, velvety skin, especially in the skinfolds.

Disease associations: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus

Splinter HaemorrhageEdit

Splinter

from nhs.uk






Thin, reddish-brown lines of blood running vertically under the nails

Disease associations: infective endocarditis


DermatomyositisEdit

Dermatomyositis

Copyright University of Iowa












Rash which appears on the face, knuckles, neck, shoulders, upper chest and back.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)Edit

As well as the classic 'butterfly' malar rash, skin manifestations of SLE include:

  • Vasculitic lesions around the nail folds
  • Purpura
  • Urticaria
  • Photosensitivity
  • Palma and plantar rashes
  • Pigmentation
  • Alopecia
  • Reynaud's phenomenon
  • Livedo reticularis (see picture below)
Livedo reticularis

from londonlupuscentre.co.uk









Erythema NodosumEdit

Erythema nodosum

Picture from dermatlas.med.jhmi.edu








Flat, firm, hot, red, painful lumps approximately an inch in diameter. They progress to purple, then brown colour.

Disease Associations: Streptococcus infection, bacterial gastroenteritides, pregnancy, antibiotic sensitivity reaction, leukaemia, lymphoma, sarcoidosis, rheumatic fever, Behcet's disease, ulcerative colitis, tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal infection, Chlamydia

Erythema MultiformeEdit

Literally meaning "Redness of many shapes"

Erythema multiforme

from dermatlas.med.jhmi.edu








Disease associations: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), other viral infections, mycoplasma infection, connective tissue disease, HIV infection, Wegener's granulomatosis, carcinoma, lymphoma.

PruritisEdit

Itchiness.

In the absence of rash, pruritis has the following disease associations:

  • Iron Deficiency Anaemia
  • Internal malignancy (especially lymphoma)
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Chronic liver disease (especially primary biliary cirrhosis)
  • Thyroid disease
  • HIV infection
  • Polycythaemia vera
  • Herbal Supplement Review
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