1. Demonstrate an ability to recognise skin signs of common or important systemic diseases including: granuloma annulare, dermatitis herpetiformis, necrobiosis lipodica, acanthosis nigricans, splinter haemorrhage, dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, erythema nodosum, erythema multiforme, pruritisEdit
A ring of waxy, erythematous papules.
Associated diseases: diabetes, HIV infection.
An itchy, blistering, persistent skin eruption.
Disease associations: Coeliac's
Patches of redness on the shins. If larger, they will have a well-defined border, and a shiny yellowy centre, usually with visible blood vessels.
Disease associatons: Insulin dependent and Non-Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
Hyperpigmentation and thick, velvety skin, especially in the skinfolds.
Disease associations: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus
Thin, reddish-brown lines of blood running vertically under the nails
Disease associations: infective endocarditis
Rash which appears on the face, knuckles, neck, shoulders, upper chest and back.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)Edit
As well as the classic 'butterfly' malar rash, skin manifestations of SLE include:
- Vasculitic lesions around the nail folds
- Palma and plantar rashes
- Reynaud's phenomenon
- Livedo reticularis (see picture below)
Flat, firm, hot, red, painful lumps approximately an inch in diameter. They progress to purple, then brown colour.
Disease Associations: Streptococcus infection, bacterial gastroenteritides, pregnancy, antibiotic sensitivity reaction, leukaemia, lymphoma, sarcoidosis, rheumatic fever, Behcet's disease, ulcerative colitis, tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal infection, Chlamydia
Literally meaning "Redness of many shapes"
Disease associations: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), other viral infections, mycoplasma infection, connective tissue disease, HIV infection, Wegener's granulomatosis, carcinoma, lymphoma.
In the absence of rash, pruritis has the following disease associations:
- Iron Deficiency Anaemia
- Internal malignancy (especially lymphoma)
- Diabetes mellitus
- Chronic Kidney Disease
- Chronic liver disease (especially primary biliary cirrhosis)
- Thyroid disease
- HIV infection
- Polycythaemia vera
- Herbal Supplement Review